kinesiology project and need a sample draft to help me learn.
1 ESW RESEARCH SEMINAR (HPE 450) GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A LITERATURE REVIEW CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review Template 3. Recommended (Approximate) Length of Each Section 4. Number of Articles to be Cited 5. APA Style 6. Criteria for Evaluation of the Literature Review 7. Source Form
2 Introduction A literature review is an overview of previous research on the author’s topic or an essential aspect of the author’s topic. It identifies, describes, and sometimes analyzes related research that has already been done and summarizes the state of knowledge about the topic. A literature review is not an annotated bibliography with summaries of the literature reviewed. It goes well beyond merely summarizing. Also, do not confuse the literature review with an academic research paper. An academic research paper focuses on developing a new argument, and it contains a literature review as one of its parts. The literature supports a new insight that you contribute to a research paper. However, the focus of a literature review is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions. A literature review must help readers understand the following: • Current research on a given topic • Trends or current debates related to the topic • Gaps in current research related to the topic • Who are the significant researchers are that are working on the topic • What direction might future research head
3 Literature Review Template A typical literature review consists of the following components: 1. Introduction: • A concise definition of a topic under consideration and the scope of the related literature being investigated. (Example: If the topic under consideration is ‘Antioxidants & their effects on exercise performance, the scope of the review may be limited to published or unpublished works) • The introduction should also note intentional exclusions. (Example: “This review will not explore the effect of antioxidants on sedentary people.”) • Another purpose of the introduction is to state the general findings of the review (what most of the sources conclude) and comment on the availability of sources in the subject area. 2. Main Body: • There are several ways to organize the evaluation of the sources. Chronological, thematic, and methodological approaches are helpful examples. • Synthesize: combines two or more elements to form a new whole. The “elements” are the literature findings you gather and read; the “new whole” is the conclusion you draw from those findings. Your goal is to compare, contrast, critically evaluate, and interpret so you can conclude. • Each work should be critically summarized and evaluated for its premise, methodology, and conclusion. • Ask yourself the following questions to analyze and synthesize your sources successfully: ✓ What are the key terms and concepts? ✓ How relevant is this article to my specific topic? ✓ What are the major relationships, trends, and patterns? ✓ How has the author structured the arguments? ✓ How authoritative and credible is this source? ✓ What are the differences and similarities between the sources? ✓ Are there any gaps in the literature that require further study? • It is also essential to address inconsistencies, omissions, gaps in research, and errors, as it is to identify accuracy, depth, and relevance. • Each body paragraph should deal with a different evaluation type (depending on your chosen organizational method) relevant to your topic. You must synthesize several of your reviewed readings into each paragraph to clearly connect the various sources. You must critically analyze each source to contribute to your research themes (see the above questions).
4 The body could include paragraphs on ✓ Historical background ✓ Methodologies ✓ Previous studies on the topic ✓ Mainstream versus alternative viewpoints ✓ Principal questions being asked ✓ General conclusions that are being drawn • Be sure to use logical connections and transitions to connect sources. 3. Conclusion: • The conclusion summarizes the key findings of the review in general terms. Notable commonalities between works may be included here, whether favorable or not. • This section is the reviewer’s opportunity to justify a research proposal. Therefore, the idea should be re-stated and supported according to the review’s findings. 4. References: • As well as accurate in-text citations, a literature review must contain complete and correct citations for every source. • Use quotes sparingly. Most literature reviews do not use direct quotes from the text. Use short quotes if you need to occasionally, but do not quote large text passages. Your goal is to summarize in your own words the studies you have found that provide documentation of your position or serve as background. • Paraphrase with caution. Retell others’ ideas with caution, being sure to watch that the ideas of others are presented as someone else’s and your ideas are presented separately.
5 Recommended (Approximate) Length of Each Section The lit review should be typed in Times New Roman, 12 fonts, double-spaced, and 12-14 pages in length. Cover page 1 page Introduction 2 pages Review of the Literature 6-8 pages Conclusions/Recommendations 2 pages References 1-2 pages
6 Number of Articles to be Cited The lit review should be cited by 15-20 articles: Original research articles (12-15) Review articles (3-5)
7 APA Style APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. You must insert citations throughout the text applying APA style for the citation and reference. o Example: ▪ Low doses of caffeine augment the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin and ibuprofen (Berzosa et al., 2011). o Then, insert the reference at the end of your lit review as follows: Reference: ▪ Berzosa, C., Cebrian, I., Fuentes-Broto, L., Gomez-Trullen, E., Piedrafita, E., Martinez-Ballarin, E., . . . Garcia, J. J. (2011). Acute exercise increases plasma total antioxidant status and antioxidant enzyme activities in untrained men. J Biomed Biotechnol, 540458. DOI:10.1155/2011/540458
8 Criteria for Evaluation of the Literature Review 1. Writing clarity (15%) 2. Format (10%) 3. Organization (10%) 4. Adherence to assignment guidelines (10%) 5. Evidence of a thorough understanding of the topic (15%) 6. The relevance of the topic (15%) 7. Evidence of accurate synthesis of current research (10%) 8. Proper citation (APA style) (15%)
9 Source Form A convenient form to use while locating and reading sources: Research Question: Topic Authors Year Summary